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一种生物处理豆粕对保育猪生长性能及免疫状况的影响

2017-11-20 11:56| 发布者: IMCTT| 查看: 1039| 评论: 0

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  2017. J. Anim. Sci. 95(11): 5030-5039
  一种生物处理豆粕对保育猪生长性能及免疫状况的影响
  J. R. Koepke, R. S. Kaushik, W. R. Gibbons, M. Brown and C. L. Levesque

  试验选用239头断奶仔猪(初始重6.56±0.87kg),进行为期35天的试验,研究一种生物发酵豆粕替代日粮中鱼粉或血浆蛋白对生长性能和免疫状况的影响。按初始重和性别将猪只随机分为4个处理组,每个处理10个圈(重复)。处理组分别为:对照组(玉米豆粕日粮,含血浆蛋白和鱼粉)、替代鱼粉组(生物处理豆粕替代对照组日粮中的鱼粉)、替代血浆组(生物处理豆粕替代对照组日粮中的血浆蛋白)、全替代组(生物处理豆粕替代对照组日粮中的鱼粉和血浆)。试验日粮分为阶段一(断奶后1-7天)和阶段二(断奶后8-21天),随后饲喂相同的阶段三(断奶后22-35天)日粮。每个阶段测量采食量和体重。在第7天和21天猪只进行卵清蛋白(OVA)和白念珠菌(CAA)免疫接种。猪只免疫反应在断奶后第14天由丝裂原刀豆蛋白A和植物血球凝集素引起的淋巴细胞增殖来评估,在断奶后第28天由卵清蛋白和白念珠菌引起的皮肤过敏(注射后第2、6、24、48小时局部肿胀增加的比例)来评估,以及第21天和28天抗卵清蛋白的初级IgG和次级IgG来评估。阶段一和阶段二结束时,对照组猪只体重显著高于替代血浆组和完全替代组,而与替代鱼粉组无显著差异。阶段一结束时,对照组、替代鱼粉组、替代血浆组、全替代组猪只体重分别为 6.99、6.80、6.52、6.60 kg,Pooled SEM为0.08;阶段二结束时,体重分别为 12.47、12.18、11.42、11.85 kg,Pooled SEM为0.21。对照组、替代鱼粉组、替代血浆组猪只对卵清蛋白的过敏反应在第2h达到峰值,而全替代组猪只过敏反应在第6h达到峰值。第2h时,各组红肿区域比值分别为 121.4、165.6、139.0、144.1%(pooled SEM 22.9),第6h时,各组红肿区域比值分别为 86.7、114.5、95.0、156.8%(pooled SEM 29.4)。各组猪只对白念珠菌的免疫反应在第2h时达到高峰期(各组分别为 42.6、55.2、48.2、50.6%,pooled SEM 11.9)。试验日粮在任何时间点都对过敏反应没有任何显著影响。与替代血浆组和全替代组相比,光密度数据表明对照组猪只次级抗卵清蛋白IgG含量降低一半(405nm处光密度分别为0.78VS. 1.56和1.55,pooled SEM 0.42)。日粮处理不影响淋巴细胞增殖。生长数据表明,生物处理豆粕是断奶日粮和保育前期日粮中鱼粉和血浆蛋白的合适替代原料。其对OVA过敏反应时间的延长表明,生物处理豆粕可能改善猪只的免疫功能,而抗卵清蛋白IgG含量增加两倍意味着需要更加深入的研究生物处理豆粕对猪免疫功能的影响。

  Evaluation of a bioprocessed soybean mealon nursery pig performance and immune status
  J. R. Koepke, R. S. Kaushik, W. R. Gibbons, M. Brown and C. L. Levesque

  A total of 239 pigs (initial BW 6.56 ± 0.87kg, 21 d of age) were used in a 35-d study to investigate the effects of fishmeal (FM) and spray dried plasma (SDP) in combination with a bioprocessed soybean meal (SBM) on growth performance and immune responses in weaned pigs. Equal numbers of barrows and gilts were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 dietary treatments (10 pens/treatment) according to initial BW and sex: positive control (CON; corn/SBM diet) containing SDP and FM, the CON with bioprocessed SBM replacing FM (BPSBM+SDP), the CON with bioprocessed SBM replacing SDP (BPSBM+FM), and the CON with bioprocessed SBM replacing both SDP and FM (BPSBM). Experimental diets were fed in Phase I (d 1-7 post-wean) and II (d8-21) followed by a common Phase III diet (d 22-35); changes in BW and feed disappearance were determined accordingly. Pigs were sensitized against ovalbumin (OVA) and Candida albicans (CAA) on d 7 and 21. Assessment of immune response was based on lymphocyte proliferation in response to mitogens Concanavalin A and phytohemagglutinin (d 14 post-wean), dermal hypersensitivity to OVA and CAA (% increase in local swelling at 2, 6, 24, and 48 h post-injection) on d28, and primary and secondary anti-OVA IgG at d 21 and 28, respectively. Pigs fed CON were heavier (P < 0.01) than pigs fed BPSBM+FM and BPSBM, and not different from pigs fed BPSBM+SDP, at the end of Phase I and II (6.99, 6.80,6.52, or 6.60 kg, pooled SEM 0.08, respectively in Phase I or 12.47, 12.18,11.42, and 11.85 kg, pooled SEM 0.21, in Phase II, respectively). Hypersensitivity to OVA peaked at 2h in pigs fed CON, BPSBM+SDP, and BPSBM+FM or peaked at 6h in pigs fed BPSBM (121.4, 165.6, 139.0, and 144.1%, pooled SEM 22.9, respectively, at 2 h and 86.7, 114.5, 95.0, and 156.8%, pooled SEM 29.4,respectively at 6 h). Peak response to CAA occurred at 2h in all groups (42.6, 55.2, 48.2, and 50.6%, pooled SEM 11.9, respectively, in the CON, BPSBM+SDP, BPSBM+FM, and BPSBM, respectively). There was no difference in hypersensitivity due to experimental diet at any time point. Secondary anti-OVA IgG was 2-fold lower based on optical density values in pigs fed CON compared with BPSBM+FM and BPSBM (0.78 vs. 1.56 and 1.55 optical density at 405 nm, pooled SEM 0.42, respectively). Dietary treatment did not impact lymphocyte proliferation. The bioprocessed SBM is a suitable alternative for FM and/or SDP in Phase I and II nursery diets based on pig growth. The prolonged hypersensitivity to OVA indicate that bioprocessed SBM may have a positive impact on pig immune function and the 2-fold increase in anti-OVA IgG warrants further investigation on the impact of bioprocessed SBM on pig immune function.

  来源:猪营养国际论坛CSIS 翻译:朱滔
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