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复合碳水化合物酶对断奶仔猪生长性能、消化率、血液组成等影响

2017-10-10 10:39| 发布者: 畜牧编辑| 查看: 735| 评论: 0|原作者: 畜牧编辑




  2017. J. Anim. Sci. 95(9): 4060-4071
  日粮复杂程度和复合碳水化合物酶对刚断奶仔猪生长性能、消化率、血液组成、肠道形态和粪便评分的影响

  B. Koo, J. W. Kim, C. F. M. de Lange, M. M. Hossain and C. M. Nyachoti

  本试验选用144头21±2日龄断奶仔猪(初始重6.70±0.81kg,公母各半),随机分为6组,研究日粮复杂程度和复合碳水化合物酶制剂的影响。试验为3(复杂日粮A、复杂日粮B和简单日粮)×2(无酶制剂、0.1%复合碳水化合物酶)双因子设计。试验日粮为2阶段,1号料饲喂时间为断奶后d0-14,2号料为断奶后d15-28。复杂日粮A为传统意义上的断奶料,添加有血浆、鱼粉、乳清粉、脱脂奶粉;而复杂日粮B中这些原料部分或者全部被植物性原料替代;简单日粮主要由玉米、小麦和豆粕组成。除第28天粗灰分表观全肠道消化率和球蛋白含量外(P<0.05),日粮复杂程度和复合碳水化合物酶之间没有互作(P>0.10)。断奶后第一周,复杂日粮A组猪只日增重、采食量和肉料比显著高于其它两组猪只(P<0.01)。但是整个试验期(28d)复杂日粮A组和简单日粮组猪只之间日增重和采食量都没有显著差异(P>0.10),而复杂日粮B组日增重和采食量显著低于复杂日粮A组(P<0.05)。简单日粮组全期肉料比显著高于复杂日粮A组(P<0.01)。

  第14天时,简单日粮和复杂日粮A之间干物质、有机物、总能、粗灰分的表观全肠道消化率没有显著差异(P>0.10)。而第28天时,复杂日粮A的干物质、有机物、中性洗涤纤维、总能和粗灰分的全肠道表观消化率显著高于复杂日粮B和简单日粮组。第14天时,与复杂日粮A组相比,简单日粮增加了血清白细胞比例(P<0.01)。复杂日粮A组猪只回肠绒毛高度:隐窝深度显著高于其它日粮组(P<0.05)。与复杂日粮A相比,复杂日粮B显著降低断奶后3周内的粪便评分。日粮中添加复合碳水化合物酶改善了全期肉料比、回肠绒毛高度、十二指肠绒毛高度:隐窝深度、干物质和总能全肠道表观消化率(P<0.05),并降低了粪便评分(P<0.05)。

  总之,饲喂简单日粮组猪只体重与复杂日粮A组相似,但是也会损伤肠道形态和第28天的养分消化率;同时添加复合碳水化合物酶制剂对猪只有益,无论日粮组成是简单还是复杂。

  Effects of diet complexity and multicarbohydrase supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood profile, intestinal morphology, and fecal score in newly weaned pigs

  B. Koo, J. W. Kim, C. F. M. de Lange, M. M. Hossain and C. M. Nyachoti

  To study the effects of diet complexity and multicarbohydrase (MC) supplementation, 144 piglets (6.70 ± 0.81 kg of BW) weaned at 21 ± 2 d of age (1:1 male to female ratio) were assigned to 1 of 6 dietary treatments in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement based on diet complexity (complex1, complex2, and simple) and MC addition (0 vs. 0.1% of MC). Diets were provided in a 2-phase feeding program with phase I (d 1 to 14) and phase II diets (d 15 to 28). Complex1 was formulated to mimic a conventional weaner diet with blood plasma, fish meal, dried whey, and skim milk powder, whereas complex2 partially or totally replaced these ingredients with various plant-based ingredients. The simple diet primarily comprised corn, wheat, and soybean meal. No interactions were found between diet complexity and MC supplementation (P > 0.10), except for apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of ash and globulin concentration on d 28 (P < 0.05). Pigs fed the complex1 diet had greater (P < 0.01) ADG, ADFI, and G:F than those fed the other diets during the first week after weaning. However, no differences in ADG or ADFI were observed for pigs fed the complex1 and simple diets throughout the 28-d experimental period (P > 0.10), whereas the complex 2 diet led to lowerADG and ADFI compared with the complex1 diet (P < 0.05). Overall, G:F was greater for pigs fed the simple diet compared with those fed the complex1 diet(P < 0.01). Pigs fed the simple diet showed ATTD of DM, OM, GE, and ash comparable to those fed the complex1 diet on d 14 (P > 0.10). In contrast, greater ATTD of DM, OM, NDF, GE, and ash was observed (P < 0.05) in pigs fed the complex1 diet than in those fed the complex 2 diet or the simple diet on d28. The simple diet increased the lymphocyte proportion in serum compared with the complex1 diet (P < 0.01) on d 14. Pigs fed the complex1 diet had a greater (P < 0.05) ratio of villus height (VH) to crypt depth (CD) in the ileum compared with the other diets. The complex 2 diet decreased (P < 0.05) the fecal score during 3 wk of the postweaning period compared with the complex1 diet. Dietary MC supplementation increased (P < 0.05) G:F during the overall experimental period, VH in the ileum, VH:CD ratio in the duodenum,and ATTD of DM and GE but it reduced fecal score (P < 0.05). In conclusion, feeding a simple diet resulted in BW comparable to feeding the complex1 diet,but it led to inferior intestinal morphology and ATTD of nutrients on d 28. Also, MC supplementation could be beneficial regardless of diet complexity.


翻译:朱滔  转自:猪营养国际论坛CSIS


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